Dr Junaid Ahmed, writer of e book “Creation of Bangladesh; Myths exploded” right now delivered a chat at QAU Islamabad. In an interactive session with college students and academia, author make clear information which he has introduced ahead in his e book.
He has carried out an in-depth analysis on 1971 debacle which resulted into dismemberment of east Pakistan. He has labored on 13 themes to convey out the fact to the youth of Pakistan. In a jam pack corridor of QAU, Islamabad , Dr Junaid addressed college students and media to focus on the problems of 1971 conflict which has to this point been propagated by India.
Author has explored by his analysis about notion that East Pakistan was ignored / exploited by the Centre, that it was not true. He states that
Financial disparity between East and West Pak was a historic legacy. As Rome was not inbuilt a day, the historic financial deprivation of East Pakistan couldn’t have been eradicated in a brief span of time. The character, in form of annual cyclones and floods, additionally had not been pleasant within the case of East Pakistan.
Additionally, the meals provide in East Pakistan couldn’t get well from famine of 1943. Efforts for industrialisation, improvement of infrastructure / airline, ports, oil fields / refinery and hydroelectric tasks and so forth present that vital consideration was paid to East Pakistan’s progress post-independence. Author states that on the time of the partition of British India, East Bengal had a plantation economic system.
Chittagong Tea Public sale was established in 1949 because the area was house to the world’s largest tea plantations. In 1947, West Bengal was a extra developed area which had gone to India, whereas East Bengal which grew to become East Pakistan didn’t have even a single jute mill.
Uncooked jute was exported to India for worth addition. Growth of jute trade in East Pakistan was solely as a consequence of West Pakistani funding within the trade. By 1950s, East Bengal surpassed West Bengal in having the biggest jute industries on the earth.
Adamjee Jute Mills was the biggest jute processing plant positioned in Narayanganj. Bengalis had been employed in massive, capital-intensive jute mills set-up by West Pakistani industrialists. Crescent, Isphani, and Adamjee jute mills had collectively employed 26,000 employees.
Investments had been inspired in East Pakistan by authorities by Pakistan Industrial Growth Company (PIDC), Pakistan Industrial Credit score and Funding Company (PICIC) and Industrial Growth Financial institution of Pakistan (IDBP).
East Pakistan Inventory Change Affiliation was established in 1954. Ispahani household, Africawala brothers and Adamjee household had been pioneers of industrialization within the area.
Many of contemporary Bangladesh’s main corporations had been born within the East Pakistan interval. An airline based in British Bengal, Orient Airways, launched the important air hyperlink between East and West Pakistan with DC-Three plane on the Dacca-Calcutta-Delhi-Karachi route. Orient Airways later advanced into Pakistan Worldwide Airways, whose first chairman was East Pakistan-based industrialist Mirza Ahmad Ispahani.
Pure fuel was found within the northeastern a part of East Pakistan in 1955 by the Burmah Oil Firm. Industrial use of pure fuel started in 1959. Shell Oil Firm and Pakistan Petroleum tapped 7 fuel fields in 1960s. Industrial seaport metropolis of Chittagong hosted the headquarters of Burmah Japanese and Pakistan Nationwide Oil. Iran assisted in establishing the Japanese Refinery in Chittagong.
Comilla Mannequin of the Pakistan Academy for Rural Growth (present-day Bangladesh Academy for Rural Growth) was conceived by Akhtar Hameed Khan and replicated in lots of growing international locations.
Throughout President Ayub’s ‘industrialisation period’ half of the cupboard members, together with many secretaries had been from East Pakistan, ensuing equal illustration for determination of allocation of improvement funds. Growth of Chittagong Port, Chandraghona Paper Mills, railway, highway, airline, and river networks all occurred with the assistance of the central authorities.
In 1965, Kaptai Dam hydroelectric undertaking was applied with American help. Furthermore, beside different cities, the centrally positioned metropolis Dacca witnessed vital city progress / improvement.
Dilating upon one other misperception that West Pakistan imposed Urdu because the nationwide language. Author has researched that Urdu being the lingua franca, was a unifying issue for the Muslims of sub-continent and performed a significant position in invigorating Pakistan Motion.
It was understood all through the nation and subsequently, it was fairly logical that Urdu could be the nationwide language of Pakistan.
Urdu was not the language of any of the 4 areas of West Pakistan as nicely. Bengali was a regional language like Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Brahvi and Balochi and so forth.
Furthermore, establishing Urdu as nationwide language didn’t, in any respect, imply that regional languages would stop to exist or flourish.
The third analysis query explored by author is Indian declare that their intervention was on humanitarian grounds. Analysis brings out startling information about Indian deceit. It was not a humanitarian intervention; it was a vicious, deliberate assault on Pakistan’s territorial integrity.
These plans had been made with the consent of Awami League management in an notorious assembly often known as Agartala Conspiracy.
Indian intervention was egotistical, and under no circumstances humanitarian, to perform the creation of the vassal state of Bangladesh to grant India hegemony within the area. Awami League management and Mukti Bahinis had been mere pawns in India’s grand plan.
Throughout 1971, even earlier than direct navy intervention, Mukti Bahini was being supplied navy, logistic and financial help by India. As soon as a reporter requested FM Sam Manekshaw – COAS from 1969 to 1973 – what would have occurred if he had gone to Pakistan on the time of partition. Manekshaw replied, “Pakistan would’ve won in 1971,” indicating the dominating position performed by Indian Military throughout 1971 conflict.
After the conflict, regardless of a number of requests from newly-formed Bangladeshi authorities, Indian navy institution was delaying its troop’s withdrawal from the newly-created nation. This induced critical bitterness between India and Bangladesh that later led to killing of Mujib by Bangladeshi Military personnel, who thought of Mujib an Indian puppet. Pakistani forces had been constantly ambushed by Indian forces and Mukti Bahinis internally whereas Tibetan guerrilla drive raised by RAW was continuously attacking border outposts.
Indian artillery was used extensively in help of insurgent operations in East Pakistan. Furthermore, Indian navy forces, together with tanks and air energy on many events, had been additionally used to again up Mukti Bahini.
Furthermore, to extend the deadly capabilities of Mukti Bahini, India geared up them with Italian howitzers, Dakota DC-Three plane, Otter DHC-Three fighter planes and Allouette helicopters (Italian howitzers utilized by Mukti Bahini at the moment are preserved at Bangladesh Army Museum in Dhaka).
In accordance with Archer Blood, an American profession diplomat – who served as final US Consul Common to Dhaka – “Indian soil was made available for training camps, hospitals and supply depots for the Mukti Bahini and they had a safe haven to which they could retire for rest, food, medical supplies and weapons.”
Mukti Bahini guerillas-along with RAW operatives and regulars from the Indian Military-operated coaching camps within the Indian states of West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and Tripura. In Nagaland, Indian Armed Forces established a jungle airstrip for Mukti Bahini from the place Indian Air Power skilled pilots carried out sorties by Otter DHC-Three plane. India’s Japanese Command skilled greater than 400 naval commandos and frogmen to drown vessels in Chittagong, Chandpur and Narayanganj.
In Dehra Dun, Main-Common Oban “selected the best personnel from Mukti Bahini” and gave them political and navy coaching. One Mukti Bahini Sector Commander, Quazi Nooruzzaman, writes: “Having received training, political commandos found it embarrassing to identify themselves as products of Indian authorities. So they gave themselves name of Bangladesh Liberation Force.”
India violated worldwide conventions in a bid to disintegrate Pakistan in 1971. Ever since, India’s and Awami League’s jingoism / hyper-nationalism has impeded improvement of cordial relations between Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Fourth publicity within the e book is about Agartala Conspiracy. It’s misperception that the case was a fabrication. Author establishes with that Indian intellectuals, navy officers, and intelligence officers have made revelations in regards to the Indian roots of the notorious case.
The plot was delayed as a consequence of Indo-China conflict of 1962 and later as a consequence of Indo-Pakistan conflict of 1965. By 1967, Pakistani authorities grew to become cognizant of this conspiracy leading to submitting of Agartala Conspiracy Case in opposition to 35 individuals together with Sheikh Mujib ur Rehman.
Agartala Conspiracy had been hatched by Awami Leaguers and Indian intelligence businesses; with Pakistan bearing total burden of its blame.
Sashanka Banerjee, an Indian diplomat, wrote that Mujib had handed him an envelope addressed to Nehru on 25th Dec 1962, requesting him for India’s help in Bangladesh’s liberation wrestle.
Sheikh Hasina Wajid herself admitted that Agartala was a real occasion; saying: “He went to Agartala in 1962. This is a fact. He went to make preparations.”
Subsequent theme researched within the e book is most essential . It’s misperception and propaganda that Operation Searchlight (25th March 1971) was launched in opposition to harmless civilians
Author states that After Yahya Khan’s announcement to postpone the Nationwide Meeting session, Awami Leaguers took to the roads. They had been armed, and began vandalism, arson, loot, and killings.
From the Nationwide Meeting session postponement until the beginning of Operation Searchlight 1000’s of harmless individuals misplaced their lives, nationwide flag was desecrated on daily basis, and jailbreaks occurred recurrently.
The perpetrators of violence had been Bengali mobs, who focused non-Bengalis and exhibited such savagery that military was ordered to stay of their barracks.
Earlier than Operation Searchlight, Bangladeshi flag was raised, firing practices ensued inside Dhaka College, barricades had been erected all through Dhaka metropolis, and checkpoints of Awami Leaguers had been erected close to the airport to look individuals.
As a consequence of this lawlessness, operation Searchlight was launched in opposition to Awami League management and its militant supporters. With the beginning of the operation, Bengal regiments and East Pakistan Regiments revolted. As a bloody show of their excessive abhorrence, defecting Bengali troopers earlier than leaving their barracks killed their counterpart West Pakistani troopers and their households.
Author talk about in depth whether or not Sheikh Mujib was a Liberator for Bengalis? Dr Junaid states that Mujib was constantly utilizing the election hustle in his favour and creating agitation throughout East Pakistan, producing risky feelings. West Pakistan was reluctant to switch energy to Mujib due to his illicit, treason-like relationship with India and his involvement in Agartala Conspiracy.
In 1972, Mujib signed a treaty of peace and friendship with India for twenty-five years. Indian pursuits had been nicely protected with Bangladesh enjoying puppet in its arms in order to keep up its hegemony / dominance within the area.
Sheikh Mujib assumed energy in Bangladesh as President, then PM, after which once more President till his assassination on 15th Aug 1975. Mujib’s period noticed worth hike, smuggling, hoarding, corruption, and political killings. The costs rose 300 instances increased than they had been in East Pakistan.
Smuggling was rampant as a consequence of corrupt politicians of Awami League, who granted licenses to their pals / relations, whereas, hoarding had turn into persistent.
Smuggling was rampant as a consequence of corrupt politicians of Awami League, who granted licenses to their pals / relations, whereas, hoarding had turn into persistent.
Mujib couldn’t tolerate opposition. He amended structure of Bangladesh for his personal profit, launched presidential type of authorities / single occasion rule. He constructed paramilitary forces to suppress opposition and, most often, kill opposition leaders. His oppressive and tyrannical rule led to his personal assassination ultimately.
The allegation of Genocide of three Million Bengalis has been termed propaganda by India to defame Pakistan.
The determine of genocide of three million Bengalis is an arbitrary one given out by the Indians with none empirical information to show it. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman introduced this determine after he returned to Bangladesh after 9 months of confinement in West Pakistan. A number of investigative accounts have rejected these fictitious claims of Awami League. The Guardian uncovered the gaps between the claimed figures and the precise figures in a report of June 1972, named ‘The Missing Millions’.
Famend writer Sarmila Bose in her e book, Lifeless Reckoning – a long-overdue dispassionate examine of 1971 conflict, after finishing up case-by-case arithmetic – concludes that between 50,000 and 100,000 individuals died in 1971 – vastly away from the determine of three million that’s sacrosanct in Bangladesh. Describing Three million determine as a “gigantic rumour,” she says it’s “not based on any accounting or survey on the ground.” Bose additionally elaborates that “in the ethnic violence unleashed in the name of Bengali nationalism, non-Bengali men, women and children were slaughtered.”
She argues that the indiscriminate bloodbath of Biharis definitely constitutes genocide.
Sarmila additionally logically nullifies the bogus claims of sexual abuse by Pakistan Military. She exclaimed: “How can it be possible that 34000 Pakistan Army soldiers facing Indian Army and Mukti Bahini could rape two lac Bengali women”.
Even the rapid authorities of Awami League after the creation Bangladesh did not show its personal generated fantasy of three million. Mujib shaped an inquiry committee in Jan 1972 to fulfill the determine of three million however failed, because the committee got here with a determine of 56,753 and the report by no means bought printed.
Likewise, solely 72,000 households got here ahead when Sheikh Mujib introduced a compensation scheme for victims of conflict together with the bogus claims.
Even the Editor of the Morning Solar – Dacca; Noor-ul-Islam wrote: “to kill 3 million people in 3 months, 11,000 were to be killed daily!”
Dr Abdul Mu’min Chowdhury, a Bengali Journalist in his e book “Behind the Myth of Three Million” rejected the allegations by giving legitimate attestations and evidences, the credibility of which may hardly be questioned.
The argument used to again the declare of genocide is that a whole lot of mass graves had been present in Bangladesh. However , the presence of our bodies in a mass grave doesn’t imply that the particular person was focused by Pakistan Military.
Sarmila Bose argues that “claims of the dead in various incidents wildly exceeding anything that can be reasonably supported by evidence on the ground – ‘killing fields’ and ‘mass graves’ were claimed to be everywhere, but none was forensically exhumed and examined in a transparent manner.”
Mukti Bahinis had been the primary perpetrators of violence. Even earlier than Operation Searchlight, 1000’s of horrifying circumstances of loot, arson, rapes, and massacres had been reported. There are petrifying accounts of entire colonies burnt to ashes with inmates locked inside and burnt alive. Your entire violence was focused at non-Bengalis (notably Biharis).
Brig Dapinder Singh Employees Officer to Gen Manekshaw inhis e book “Soldiering with Dignity” wrote; “we prepared Mukti Bahini. Some of them were clad in Pak Army uniform and tasked to loot and rape in East Pakistan.”
As per the 1951 census there have been 671,000 Biharis in East Pakistan and as much as 20 % of all the Bihari inhabitants was massacred by the Mukti Bahini.
In accordance with Yasmin Saikia’s ‘Women, War and the Making of Bangladesh’, 1000’s of Bihari girls had been raped and tortured by the Mukti Bahini.
Greater than 20,000 Biharis had been massacred by Bengalis in Khulna jute mills – together with males, girls and youngsters. Some had been burnt alive; others had been guillotined.
Biharis had been subjected to killing / rape and had been pushed out of their properties. Mukti Bahini killed from 100,000 Biharis (based on ‘Chronology for Biharis in Bangladesh’) to 150,000 Biharis (based on ‘Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict’).
Qutubuddin Aziz, in ‘Blood and Tears,’ has documented 170 eye-witness accounts of ‘atrocities committed on Biharis and other non-Bengalis,’ protecting ‘110 places where slaughter of innocents took place.’
In accordance with Lawrence Lifschultz, South Asia correspondent for Far Japanese Financial Evaluation, Mukti Bahini chief, Abdul Kader Siddiqui, “personally bayoneted” non-Bengalis to dying and all the incident was filmed by overseas movie crews whom Siddiqui had invited to witness the spectacle.
Author additionally argue the variety of troopers who surrendered.
The variety of troopers is exaggerated and false. The precise quantity was 34,000 troops, 11,000 police, rangers, scouts and militia. This made the overall variety of combatants to 45,000.
Accordingly, the variety of 93,000 as conjured by Indians together with kids, girls, civilian administration officers and employees; non-combatant military personnel – nurses, docs, barbers, cooks and shoemakers is ill-founded.
Furthermore, the political machinations of India and allies have been uncovered by *Indian Lt Gen J.F.R. Jacob* in his e book ‘Surrender at Dacca : Birth of a Nation’ as he writes;
“_On 4 December 1971, the United States moved a draft resolution calling for cease-fire and withdrawal of Indian forces, which was vetoed by Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Thereafter, another six resolutions including one by China were introduced calling for cease-fire and withdrawal of forces, some of which were accepted by Pakistan. However, due to behind the scene political machinations by India and her allies their passage and implementation was stalled till Dhaka fell on 16 December 1971 and the cease-fire had been perfidiously converted to surrender. “I took a careful look at the documents and was aghast to see the heading – which read Instrument of ‘Surrender’……_”.
Nonetheless, Pakistan Military fought valiantly in powerful situations, Logistical issues confronted by West Pakistan in 1971 conflict want due consideration. East and West Pakistan had been separated by over 1200 miles of territory of hostile India.
Pakistani troops gave heroic struggle regardless of enemy’s superiority in each numbers and firepower,. There are quite a few accounts of some astounding chivalry which testify the braveness of Pakistani troops. The defence of Hilli and valour displayed by Main Muhammad Akram, actions of Fateh Saboona Maj Shabbir Sharif Shaheed, Lance Naik Muhammad Mahfuz and Sawar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed are few examples. “Captain Arjumand Yar Khand was a younger officer from an infantry unit. He was assigned the duty of organising a powerful delaying place forward of this protection place. The officer, together with a handful of males, held his floor in opposition to repeated Indian armor and infantry assaults, hours of air bombing and strafing for almost three days throughout which some his males had been martyred and a few critically wounded. On the final day Arjumand was the one one left within the delaying place.
On fifth Dec 1971, the Indian Military and Mukti Bahini forces broke the defence between Laksham and Comilla and had been heading for the Divisional Headquarters and Chanpur Base. At this second, Main Bilal Ahmed amongst half firm of commandos fought the enemy columns for nearly three days and nights. He efficiently resisted the continued assaults of the enemies and saved them away from the Chandpur base.
Even Indian Discipline Marshal Sam Manekshaw praised Pakistani Military whereas saying, “The Pakistan Military within the East Pakistan fought very gallantly however they’d no likelihood… They had been a thousand miles away from their base; I had eight or 9 months to make my preparations. I had the prevalence of just about 50 to 1. They only had no likelihood however they fought very gallantly.”
Importantly, Pakistan Military’s formations baffled Indian Military alongside Japanese Border and seize of strategic city of Chumb is likely one of the most critical reverse suffered by Indian Military in 1971.
Author undertakes the logic if Creation of Bangladesh is the negation of Two Nation Idea? He elaborated that The creation of Bangladesh didn’t occur on non secular strains, it occurred on the idea of divergent tradition / political variations – exploited by a visual overseas hand.
Furthermore, negation of Two Nation Idea would imply that after seceding from Pakistan, Bangladesh needed to merge with India as was in pre- partition period, which it didn’t.
Two Nation Idea meant that Hindus and Muslims are two completely different nations. Even after succeeding from Pakistan, Muslims in Bangladesh don’t take into account themselves just like Hindus.
The largest proof in help of Two Nation Idea is the chain of occasions triggered in India after Modi got here to energy. Muslims are being persecuted / additional pushed to the wall. A number of actions – abrogation of Article 370, building of Ram Mandir, Citizenship Modification Act (CAA) / Nationwide Register for Residents (NRC) – have been instrumental in making Indian Muslims second class residents. Even pro-India Kashmiri leaders (Muftis and Abdullah) are questioning the choice of their fore-fathers to remain throughout the Union of India.
Modi impressed by RSS / poisonous Hindutva ideology has efficiently confirmed the Two Nation Idea. Prophetic phrases of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah that “Muslims who are opposing Pakistan will spend rest of their lives proving loyalty to India,” stand vindicated.
Dr Junaid additionally contest the declare propagated by India that Biharis had been deserted by Pakistan? Author claims that Biharis, as a definite ethnic group, are those who confronted most brutal brunt of 1971 episode of East Pakistan. Biharis supported the territorial integrity of Pakistan in 1971.
Fairly few of them succeeded in reaching Pakistan from 1972 to 1980 and majority settled at Karachi.
They’re very loyal and patriotic residents who volunteer to be enrolled in armed forces and struggle for defence of motherland.
Hero of 1965 conflict, Air Commodore M.M Alam (SJ) and the hero of Operation Swift Retort, Squadron Chief Hasan Siddiqui are Biharis.
They firmly imagine in two nation idea. From 1947 to 1971, these Bihari’s had been bonafide Pakistani residents whose standing by no means modified; subsequently their authorized standing is precisely identical as different Pakistani citizen.
Dr Junaid brings out that There may be Hatred between Pakistanis and Bengalis.
There may be not a vestige of hostility in opposition to Bengalis amongst Pakistanis. From random literature to textual content books, there is no such thing as a denouncing materials in opposition to Bengalis. The separation of East and West Pakistan is essentially remembered as a painful nationwide tragedy warranting soul looking out and self-accountability. Ever since separation, no malicious marketing campaign has ever run in Pakistan to belittle or disregard Bangla Desh at any discussion board; fairly it’s thought of as a Brother Muslim Sovereign State.
Overwhelming help for Pakistani cricketers within the current matches in Bangladesh displays the present affinity between the 2 individuals which hostile forces have did not defeat.
Factually talking, there may be enough area for affecting conciliation and cordiality between Pakistan and Bangladesh based mostly on mutual respect, belief and curiosity. It’s higher for the 2 international locations to candidly revisit / overlook the disagreeable previous and look in the direction of a shared affluent future within the dawning period of geo-economics and regional integration.